Appendix A

Answers to Review Questions


Chapter 1

  1. No. It's a text mark-up language.
  2. True.
  3. SGML (Standard Generalized Mark-up Language.)
  4. Explicit formatting means the designer specifies the appearance of text. Implicit formatting leaves appearance up to the Web browser application.
  5. False. WordPerfect documents are binary (i.e., non-ASCII) computer files that can't be edited without a special word processing application.
  6. No. The HTML Working Group is part of the IETF. The W3C is an organization of Internet companies.
  7. To reach the widest possible audience of designers and users.
  8. By deciding which elements or commands to use and which to ignore.

Chapter 2

  1. The Web protocols allow Web server computers to send many different types of data and information.
  2. Hypertext is a system of documentation where certain words in a document are linked to other documents. The Microsoft Windows help system is an example of hypertext.
  3. False. Hypermedia links are hypertext links to multimedia files.
  4. A site is a collection of Web documents and files. A page is a single Web document.
  5. Helper applications are used to display or play non-HTML files and documents, like multimedia files.
  6. File extensions help browsers determine the file types of multimedia files.
  7. Gopher and FTP.
  8. Your e-mail address.

Chapter 3

  1. The original graphical browser is NCSA Mosaic. The most popular is Netscape Navigator.
  2. Page layout.
  3. Lynx is a text-only browser.
  4. Server address.
  5. mailto: is followed by a simple e-mail address instead of a server/path combination.
  6. A forward slash (/).
  7. Yes (assuming the path and filename were correct).
  8. True. All text and graphics on Web pages must be downloaded to the user's computer.
  9. (a) binary; (b) ASCII; (c) binary; (d) binary.

Chapter 4

  1. Yes. Customer service and technical support.
  2. Multimedia makes the Web a unique marketing medium, where customers can interactively experience products and services.
  3. The All-Rite travel site could be updated more frequently with special offers than could their brochures, with more appeal than direct mailings.
  4. It can sit dormant and unchanged for weeks or months.
  5. A Web page or site that acts as a front end for data processing.
  6. The next logical medium for publication.
  7. HTML 2.0.
  8. Tables (also frames and text/graphics alignment).

Chapter 5

  1. False.
  2. Web server software and a high-speed Internet connection.
  3. Kbps is thousands of bits per second. Mbps is millions of bits per second.
  4. Call your local phone company.
  5. Throughput is the average amount of information per user multiplied by the number of users. ISPs charge for throughput to discourage one site from monopolizing the ISP's Internet connections.
  6. Eight characters with a three-character extension (8.3).
  7. The hybrid systems uses separate directories for items that appear once (e.g., documents and files specific to a particular Web page), while commonly-accessed files are kept in their own directories (e.g., "logos").
  8. A graphics file; most likely a photo of a person. This graphic might be linked to the About the Company page on a Web site.
  9. Put. Uploading means sending the file.

Chapter 6

  1. No. You can use a simple text editor or word processing program.
  2. HTML files are saved in the ASCII text file format. The extension should be .html or .htm.
  3. <HTML>, <HEAD>, and <BODY>.
  4. <TITLE>.
  5. Save it with a new file name and HTML extension.
  6. Container tags have two parts, the "on" and "off" tags, and containers act on a specific block of text. Empty tags appear once and perform some function on their own.
  7. <HR> (also <BR>).
  8. The "on" and "off" tags aren't identical except for a forward slash (/).
  9. True.
  10. <P> is a container that defines a section of text; <BR> is an empty tag that forces a line return.

Chapter 7

  1. Explicit is also known as physical styles; implicit is also known as logical styles.
  2. Implicit tags let the browser choose the formatting; explicit tags let the designer choose.
  3. Because it gives the browser no choice in how to render the affected text.
  4. No, <I> will not work in a text browser. Yes, <EM> will.
  5. <VAR>.
  6. For internal documentation when your HTML document explains
    computer-related issues.
  7. Yes.
  8. The <P> paragraph tag.
  9. Yes.

Chapter 8

  1. The list type container tag (<OL>) and the list item empty tag (<LI>).
  2. A bullet point (and a return).
  3. No.
  4. Directory list.
  5. Yes.
  6. It can accept two different list item tags, <DT> and <DD>.
  7. No.
  8. No.
  9. No. The concept comes from computer programming and works with many HTML tags.
  10. B.
  11. An unordered list (<UL>) nested within an ordered list (<OL>).

Chapter 9

  1. The file size of the graphic.
  2. True.
  3. GIF and JPEG. Yes, but many browsers will require helper applications to view other graphics formats.
  4. When compressed, the graphic file loses image quality.
  5. Create the graphic. Download public-domain graphics. Use scanned photographs. Use graphics created by a digital camera. Use PhotoCDs.
  6. Around 20 kilobytes.
  7. Small images that are linked to a larger version of the same image that users can view if interested.
  8. The GIF89a format.
  9. An attribute.
  10. It displays text in browsers that can't view the image file.
  11. False.
  12. It's the default value.

Chapter 10

  1. An attribute.
  2. No.
  3. A section link. It's going to access another section of the same document.
  4. Yes.
  5. The <BASE> tag establishes the absolute base for relative URLs in your document. It appears between the <HEAD> tags.
  6. False. It requires an absolute URL.
  7. No. mailto: does not require a double-slash (//).
  8. <REL> and <REV> (also <HREF>).
  9. No.
  10. Ask the Web server administrator.

Chapter 11

  1. False.
  2. Yes, to emphasize the text used for the hypertext link.
  3. <U> (underline).
  4. No.
  5. Yes. It accesses the section parttwo in the local document chapter1.html.
  6. This is an anchor for a clickable graphic thumbnail. It is legal.
  7. Yes, but it might not display automatically in the browser window or helper application.

Chapter 12

  1. Because these images are "mapped" into different sections that act as hyperlinks.
  2. Create the graphic, map it for hot zones, and place the correct information on the Web server.
  3. ASCII text.
  4. Yes. You need to know if your map definition file should be in CERN or NSCA format.
  5. Ask your Web server administrator.
  6. Two. 100.
  7. True. The map editing program is just designed to create the map definition file, which you could conceivably create in a text editor.
  8. The graphic file and the map definition file.
  9. No. The shapes are drawn to determine the coordinates of shapes for the map definition file. The map editing program doesn't alter the image file in any way.
  10. Any click that doesn't occur in another shape will be evaluated by the server as "close" to the point, and the default will never be accessed.
  11. The coordinates of the mouse pointer when clicked. The design adds the ISMAP attribute to the <IMG> tag.

Chapter 13

  1. GET and POST. POST is used most often.
  2. The URL to a form-processing script.
  3. <TEXTAREA> is used for free-form entry. The user enters data with the keyboard.
  4. The default text for the textarea.
  5. An attribute.
  6. Checkboxes work independently of one another; radio buttons allow one selection among a number of choices.
  7. Use the attribute CHECKED.
  8. With a Submit button (TYPE="SUBMIT"). When the user clicks this button, the data is sent.
  9. A pop-up menu.
  10. It displays as a scrolling menu.
  11. Use the attribute SELECTED.

Chapter 14

  1. <P> is designed as a container, not a line-return tag. <P> also adds varying levels of space in different browsers.
  2. Yes. Yes.
  3. A series of form elements that logically belong together (e.g., name and address).
  4. Extra spacing. Multiple <BR> tags don't render consistently in different browsers.
  5. Don't use the <BR> tag between them.
  6. It doesn't allow the user to enter more than the defined number of characters. It's errorchecking for elements like phone numbers or ZIP codes that should always be a certain number of characters.
  7. It allows you to align elements using a monospaced font. You "lose" the use of the browser's paragraph font (all descriptive text between <PRE> tags is rendered in the monospaced font).
  8. The <DL> list never uses bullet points or numbers for list items. A <UL> list would display bullets.
  9. The <OL> list is used to number form elements.
  10. The POST method is more powerful, because it allows for more data to be transferred. The GET method is a bit easier to use.
  11. Most scripts can use a standard print command to "standard out" for HTML output. The Web browser acts like a terminal console.

Chapter 15

  1. Because most current browsers don't support the full specification.
  2. Yes.
  3. Inches.
  4. CELLPADDING is the distance between the cell walls and the cell's contents. CELLSPACING is the distance between the walls of the table and the individual cells.
  5. False. The default (when no value is assigned) is a one pixel border.
  6. At the top of the table.
  7. Yes.
  8. This creates one cell with three lines of text. (Each name appears below the previous name within a stretched cell.)
  9. ALIGN.
  10. If that particular cell needs special alignment (e.g., dollar amounts).

Chapter 16

  1. LEFT and RIGHT.
  2. True (aside from LEFT and RIGHT, which align the figure relative to the browser window).
  3. Inline.
  4. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. The styles used for <INSERT> are not all official MIME types, so we call them MIME-style.
  5. It's used when the browser is unable to display the <INSERT> tag's multi-media file.
  6. This chapter doesn't include a table of values for NAME and VALUE because different multimedia file formats will use these attributes for different reasons. The best place to find these values is from the company or organization that created the multimedia file format.
  7. Yes. <PARAM> is only used when you want to pass a parameter to the multimedia file. If the file doesn't require a special parameter, there's no reason to use the <PARAM> tag.
  8. It reserves those functions for HTML 3.0 level style sheets.
  9. Light, between tan and gray. HTML 3.0 doesn't let you control font colors, and most browsers default to black text. Dark backgrounds will make pages difficult to read.

Chapter 17

  1. A client-side image map doesn't require a special map server program on the Web server.
  2. No. The <MAP> tag is used to define the map.
  3. Not all browsers support client-side maps, so including support for both types of image map reaches the widest possible audience.
  4. True.
  5. USEMAP. <MAP>.
  6. Rectangle (RECT), circle (CIRCLE), and polygon (POLYGON).
  7. The client-side map specification includes support for ALT hypertext links for text-only browsers. The browsers must be updated to recognize this standard, so that the ALT text is rendered.
  8. When users with browsers that don't support client-side image maps click an image map, they can be taken to a page that explains this problem and/or gives them an alternative way to access the links on your site.

Chapter 18

  1. Shorthand references for HTML tags.
  2. Parentheses.
  3. False. They are used to represent math formulas.
  4. The integration symbol.
  5. e~.
  6. No. <BANNER> is used to fix a portion of the HTML document at the top of the browser window, so that subsequent text scrolls under it.
  7. Style sheets are for specific control over the layout and appearance of a Web page. Up until the style sheet specification, the HTML standard gave the browser program more control over page layout than it gave the designer.
  8. Cascading Style Sheets standard. It's a specific definition of the different layout and appearance options you have for your Web page. CSS is only one possible definition for HTML style sheets.
  9. Classes are defined as extensions to HTML tags in the <STYLE> container (usually in the head of a tag). Classes are implemented using the attribute CLASS= to a given mark-up tag.
  10. <SPAN> does nothing on its own; it has to be defined. <DIV> is a similar tag in that it does no specific formatting, but can be used for limited layout functions (like alignment).
  11. The background will be a blend from white to blue.
  12. It allows you to incorporate a common style sheet for a number of pages.
  13. <CENTER>.

Chapter 19

  2. The values for red, green, and blue. This is the hexadecimal numbering system.
  3. It sets the color of an active hypertext link.
  4. <BLINK>.
  5. No. No, <WBR> suggests to Netscape where it's possible to break a word
    or line; <BR> forces a break when inserted.
  6. False. <BASEFONT> changes all paragraph fonts, but text in header tags
    (e.g., <H3>) is unaffected.
  7. No, a plus or minus sign is not required.
  8. False. It accepts no values.
  9. Yes.
  10. VPSACE and HSPACE.
  11. ALIGN creates a floating image when used with the values LEFT or RIGHT.

Chapter 20

  1. It actually replaces the <BODY> tag.
  2. True.
  3. The page has two columns; one column is 25 percent of the screen and uninterrupted, while the second column is 75 percent of the screen and divided into two equal rows.
  4. auto.
  5. Netscape (and compatible browsers) are designed to ignore text between <NOFRAMES> tags. Browsers that don't recognize frames tags will ignore everything but the markup.
  6. Don't start the name with an underscore (_).
  7. <FORM> and <BASE>.
  8. It forces all links on that page to target a particular frame window without requiring you to enter a TARGET attribute for every anchor.
  9. False. Magic targets are special commands that can't be performed any other way.
  10. They can't directly access the URL for pages in the frames interface and they can't use the Forward and Back buttons in their browser.

Chapter 21

  1. BGSOUND is not an attribute for <BODY>; it's a stand-alone tag.
  2. An .au or .wav sound sample or a MIDI format file.
  3. Three hexadecimal numbers for red, green, and blue values.
  4. As often as desired.
  5. It determines how many times the sound will play.
  6. It works with <TABLE>, <TR>, and <TD>.
  7. <INSERT>.
  8. Using the START="MOUSEOVER" attribute to an <IMG DYNSRC> tag allows the video clip to start by pointing the mouse at it.

Chapter 22

  1. <APPLET>.
  2. Yes.
  3. The <PARAM> tag sends any parameters required by the Java program to the applet when it's started.
  5. A method.
  6. It comes from the function call in the body of the document.
  7. The end of the comment tag should have // in front of it to keep from confusing some browsers, as in:

    // -->
  8. An event handler allows JavaScript to react to an event, which can be defined as any action by the user.
  9. False. It could be named nearly anything.
  10. (also
  11. It's the opposite of focus.
  12. stringname.length.

Chapter 23

  1. player2.at_bats = 25.
  2. A method.
  3. The name assigned to the object by the keyword new.
  4. False.
  5. The second is an assignment. Assignments always evaluate to true.
  6. The script simply moves on to the next statement.
  7. 1.
  8. 6.
  9. You can use the plus sign (+) to concatenate strings.

Chapter 24

  1. The use of a binary file format.
  2. x-world/x-vrml, .wrl.
  3. VRML is a different format from HTML and it's very important to get the header and file format correct for VRML worlds.
  4. PI and .5PI.
  5. Yes. Cube has a default value of one meter for each dimension.
  6. Cylinder.
  7. False. It will begin at X=0.
  8. scaleFactor.
  9. It will be flipped upside-down.
  10. True.

Chapter 25

  1. The second entry is darker. (As a value approaches 1, it becomes more intense.)
  2. Red.
  3. REPEAT tiles an entire object with a texture, while CLAMP forces only one copy of the tile graphic on an object. REPEAT is the default, so you only have to type CLAMP when that's the effect you want.
  4. It's best to use absolute URLs for VRML worlds in general because many VRML browsers download to file to the user's computer first, making relative URLs ineffective.
  5. Separator.
  6. There isn't much point in having a Material statement as part of the WWWAnchor node, since an anchor doesn't create a visible object. WWWAnchor nodes should enclose other separator nodes that create visible objects.
  7. To indicate the end of a series of point numbers that defines one "side" of a shape.
  8. 2.
  9. True.
  10. Inside of the sphere, at the center (until you move within the VRML browser).

Chapter 26

  1. True.
  2. Yes.
  3. Acrobat.
  4. They are generally downloaded and handed over to a helper application.
  5. MS Word for Windows 2.0 or above.
  6. RTF files maintain a minimal level of formatting (like font sizes and alignment), while ASCII maintains no formatting beyond basic characters, spaces, and returns.

Chapter 27

  1. Yes.
  2. A word processing program.
  3. ASCII text. Yes, any text editor or word processor.
  4. True. It creates an Unordered List.
  5. Properties, Text. (Then choose the Paragraph tab.)
  6. Description Lists.
  7. No. Hit Shift+Return for <BR>.
  8. Once your HTML documents are on the Web server, their path statements might need to be slightly different than they were on your PC. Browse creates PC-style relative links that may not be appropriate for your site.
  9. By default, instead of creating a relative link, Gold copies the graphic to the current directory.
  10. No. You need to use the Document Properties dialog box.

Chapter 28

  1. No, it's an add-on for Microsoft Word. It can be downloaded free from
  2. Yes.
  3. ASCII text. Yes you can, in any text editor or word processor.
  4. True.
  5. Select OL from the pull-down menu in the button bar.
  6. In 1.0, a tab between the term and definition automatically formats the list. In 2.0, you need to format each term and definition individually.
  7. False. When using the HTML template, use the HTML file type for saving, so that Windows correctly recognizes the file and it's given the correct extension.
  8. A section link, e.g., <A NAME="name">.
  9. You enter the bookmark link first, and then create the calling link.
  10. The Submit button. SUBMIT and METHOD can be set in the Submit Button Form Field dialog box.

Chapter 29

  1. No, you can also use command-key shortcuts for many HTML tags.
  2. Use the <P> tag to get back to regular text.
  3. Since you need to assign every definition item individually, this saves about half the work.
  4. There is no menu command. Press the <HR> button in the button bar.
  5. Yes.
  6. PICT files are automatically converted to GIF files.
  7. The "magic wand."
  8. Use the shape tool to create hotzones and enter corresponding URLs. Select the entire graphic and define a default URL. Return to the editor window, select the graphic, and change the graphic to a map using the Attributes Inspector.
  9. Regular text and HTML tags (like we've used throughout the book). If you don't use a special command, PageMill assumes your HTML markup is just text, not actual tags.
  10. Through the document button in the Attribute Inspector.